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(298) Transgenic fish as models for environmental toxicology.
Winn, Richard*,1, 1 University of Georgia, Warnell School of Forest Resources, Athens, GA
ABSTRACT- Historically, fish have played significant roles in assessing potential risk associated with exposure to chemical contamination in aquatic environments. Recent advances in the generation of transgenic rodent models have served to stimulate similar efforts to generate transgenic fish to enhance the roles of fish in environmental toxicology. The application of transgenic fish remains at an early stage, but recent introduction of new models and methods demonstrate progress. Advances are most evident in the area of in vivo mutagenesis using fish carrying transgenes that serve as recoverable mutational targets. These models highlight many advantages afforded by fish as models and illustrate important issues that apply broadly to the development and application of transgenic fish in environmental toxicology. Results demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo mutation analyses using transgenic medaka and Fundulus, and highlight their distinct value in environmental studies. Challenges to the generation and application of new transgenic fish relate to the need to improve efficiencies of transgenic technology and fish husbandry. In addition, important issues need to be considered when applying transgenic fish in assessments of environmental health risks. For example, each new model and application will require resolution of complex issues related to optimal study designs, such as proper exposure regimens, chemical concentrations, routes and duration of exposure, and numbers of animals required for a test. The requirements for reproducibility of responses in individual animals will also demand rigid husbandry practices to reduce variability in culture conditions. The increasing number of substances introduced into the environment each year, combined with the prevalent need for improved methods to assess potential adverse health effects, are expected to encourage and support the generation of new transgenic fish.
Key words: transgenic, mutation analysis, medaka
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