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(514) Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Trends in Atmospherically Derived Organic Films along an Urban-Rural Gradient.
Butt, Craig*,1, Truong, Jennifer1, Diamond, Miriam1, Ikonomou, Michael2, Stern, Gary3, 1 University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario2 Institute of Ocean Sciences, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Sidney, British Columbia3 Freshwater Institute, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg, Manitoba
ABSTRACT- Atmospherically derived organic films have been shown to form on impervious surfaces in urban and rural areas. As a consequence of their formation processes, through the condensation of gaseous species and particulate deposition, the composition of organic films is representative of ambient air. Films from a ubiquitous impervious surface (windows) were sampled for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) along an urban-rural gradient, extending from downtown Toronto north-westward approximately 80 kilometres. Paired interior and exterior windows were sampled at all sites. Sampling was conducted during July and August 2001. PBDEs are a class of flame retardants that are added to many materials such as plastics, textiles and polyurethane foams. As global demand continues to increase, PBDEs are ubiquitously detected in many environmental media, including mammals in the Canadian Arctic. Particulate- and gas-phase air concentrations were also measured at three locations along the gradient using high-volume air samplers. Ambient air concentrations were used to develop a series of film-air partition coefficients (KFA). We suggest that, through the application of KFA coefficients, organic films may be used as a passive air sampler. Film thickness and PBDE concentrations decreased along the urban-rural gradient, coincident with lower ambient air concentrations and increasing distance from sources.
Key words: organic films, fate and transport, PBDE, atmospheric processes
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