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(P079) Evaluation of a Proposed Toxicity Testing Regime for Amphibian Species, Part- 2 Organics.
Wigginton, Andrew*,1, Price, David1, Westerman, Albert2, Beiting, Michael1, Linder, Greg3, Birge, Wesley1, 1 University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA2 Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet, Frankfort, KY, USA3 Heron Works, USGS/BRD/CERC Field Office, Brooks, OR, USA
ABSTRACT- Laboratory toxicity tests were conducted with embryo-larval (EL) stages of fish and amphibian species. Many amphibian species exhibited unusually high sensitivity to chemical stressors. In a previous paper, and updated in this study, a Chemical Hazard Index (CHI) was developed using laboratory toxicity tests for ranking amphibian species according to their sensitivity to chemical stressors and for comparisons with up to six benchmark fish species. R. catesbeniana and R. pipiens were more sensitive to carbon tetrachloride than was the rainbow trout (O. mykiss). However, the trout was more sensitive to chloroform. It should be noted that in tests with chloroform, the results attained for P. promelas were comparable to those observed for B. fowleri and X. laevis, two of the most tolerant amphibian species. R. pipiens was the most sensitive of nine fish and amphibian species used in toxicity tests with NTA. The rainbow trout was more susceptible to capacitor 21 and three aroclors than was R. pipiens. However, R. pipiens, B. fowleri, and several fish species were more affected by possible PCB replacement compounds than was the trout. Amphibians were more sensitive than O. mykiss as the benchmark species in 18 of the 55 CHI calculations (32.7%) and were more sensitive than all fish species used as benchmarks in 88 of 187 CHI calculations (47.1%). Atrazine exposure produced teratogenesis in tests with fish and amphibian early life stages. Frequencies of terata reached 62% to 100% in tests with three species. This and other studies provide convincing evidence that chemical stressors produce an aberrant pattern of embryonic development and that a number of anomalous embryos live to complete the hatching process. These observations underscore the need to include amphibian species in chemical screening tests, criterion development, and risk assessment.
Key words: amphibians, toxicity testing, terata, risk assessment
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