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(291) Toxicologic considerations in the development and deployment of environmental biosensors.
Hinton, David*,1, Kullman, Seth1, Ozato, Kenjiro, Wakamatsu, Yuko, 1 Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA
ABSTRACT- Environmental toxicology is grounded in an examination of the mechanisms of toxicity. When similar mechanisms of toxicity become apparent between fish and wildlife and rodents and human cells and tissues, these responses may serve as sentinels for potential human and agricultural animal hazards. Sentinels, biomarkers, and now, biosensors, have certain features in common and yet some unique differences are seen with the latter. Production of transgenic organisms has enormous potential as biosensors in environmental toxicology. The biosensor response can serve as an early signal of the presence of the xenobiotic in the medium, its exposure, uptake, and interaction with specific targets in cells and tissues of the host. Some platform presentations at this meeting serve as proof of principle in certain instances using transgenic organisms and predominantly laboratory exposures. Deployment of transgenic organisms under environmental conditions, however, calls for consideration of important factors including at least the following: nature and source of the transgenic organism, bioavailability of real world toxicants, exposure concentrations, durations, and the complexities of mixtures, relevant routes of exposure, proximate and intermediate metabolism, and dosimetry. In certain instances, it may be possible to establish on-line systems for exposure to water. However exposure to sediment or surface micro-layers, may be of equal or greater importance. The question of usefulness of the transgenic organism must be considered in light of changes associated with increasing age and growth as well as pigment deposition and thickness of body. Using transgenic Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) as examples, we shall present perceived strengths and weaknesses of these organisms and identify information gaps where further work is needed to optimize their utility.
Key words: transgenic medaka, biosensors, toxicity, applications
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