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(284) Temporal and Spatial Distributions of Human-Health Pharmaceuticals and Antimicrobials Between Bottom Sediment and Surface Water.
Furlong, Edward1, Cahill, Jeffery*,1, Ferrer, Imma1, Werner, Stephen1, Glassmeyer, Susan2, Kolpin, Dana3, Mahler, Barbara4, 1 National Water Quality Laboratory, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO, USA2 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH, USA3 U.S. Geological Survey, Iowa City, IA4 U.S. Geological Survey, Austin, TX, USA
ABSTRACT- Human-health pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) have been shown to be present at low concentrations in multicomponent mixtures in many surface waters within the United States. The presence and concentrations of pharmaceuticals in filtered surface water, suspended sediment, and bottom sediment were determined at twelve sites distributed across the United States. The sites were chosen to represent a range of surface water flows, land uses, population densities, and possible OWC sources. Paired surface water and bed sediment samples were collected at sites above and below identified inputs. Suspended sediments were collected a select sites. Several sites were sampled more intensively over a 24-period or were sampled at greater spatial frequency downstream of identified inputs. Approximately 25 human-health pharmaceuticals, human derived organic waste tracers, and the surfactant antimicrobial benzalkonium chloride were determined in all samples using a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and either ion-trap or quadrupole mass spectrometry. Elemental compositions in selected samples were verified by HPLC/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Preliminary results indicate that OWC concentrations vary widely in water and sediment, with typical water concentrations of pharmaceuticals such as carbamazapine and caffeine ranging between below detection to several micrograms per liter (g/L), but are typically substantially less than 1 g/L. Sediment pharmaceutical compositions vary but typically are in the tens of micrograms per kilogram.
Key words: HPLC/MS, Pharmaceuticals, Antimicrobials, Sediment
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