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TA7 Alkylphenols and Alkylphenol Ethoxylates
(223) Fate and analysis of halogenated alkylphenolic compounds.
Barcelo, D.1, Petrovic, M.1, Diaz, A.2, Ventura, F.2, Garcia-Reyero, N.1, Piņa, B.1, 1 CSIC, Barcelona, Spain2 AGBAR, Barcelona, Spain
ABSTRACT- While many studies have reported on the occurrence of alkylphenolic compounds in the environment and their ability to mimic endogenous hormone 17b-estradiol is well documented only little data exist on the occurrence and ecotoxicology of brominated and chlorinated derivatives formed during the chlorination process at drinking and wastewater treatment plants. It seems likely that halogenation render alkylphenolic molecules even more refractory and more lipophilic, which could potentially cause greater persistence in the environment and possibly accumulation in the food chain. Furthermore, there is concern about their toxicity, mutagenicity and possible estrogenicity. Employing recombinant yeast assay (RYA) and MCF7 test for both estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities and enzyme linked receptor assay (ELRA) to probe binding to the receptor it was confirmed that halogenated nonylphenolic derivatives retained a significant affinity for the estrogen receptors suggesting that they may be able to disturb the hormone imbalance of exposed organisms. However, one of the reasons for less attention received is the low relative abundance of these compounds (generally less than 10% of the total pool of alkylphenolic compounds) and lack of appropriate analytical methods for their unequivocal identification and quantification. This work will review the state-of-the-art in the LC-MS and LC-MS-MS analyses of halogenated alkylphenolic compounds, as well as the occurrence data. Single stage LC-MS with ESI ionization showed limitations in the analysis of real-world samples, resulting from the presence of isobaric interferences. MS-MS study showed characteristic fragmentation pattern for each group of compounds that provided sufficient structural information and permitted the election of specific transition channels for their identification. In addition to high sensitivity and selectivity, the method allowed determination of isobaric target compounds (e.g. BrNPE1C and ClNPE2C) and elimination of interference of co-eluting isobaric no-target compounds (e.g. C11LAS). The method yielded very low detection limits: low ng/L level in water samples and low ng/g level in sludge samples, thus providing a reliable and robust tool that can be used for routine analysis.
Key words: estrogenicity testing, halogented alkylphenolic compounds, LC-MS-MS analysis, occurrence data
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