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PW09 Exposure and Effect Endpoints
(PW145) Developmental toxicity of eleven pharmaceuticals as determined by the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay: Xenopus.
Cole, S1, Richards, S1, 1 University of Tennessee-Chattanooga, Chattanooga, TN, USA
ABSTRACT- Pharmaceuticals are inadvertently being introduced into surface waters via raw sewage and treated sewage effluent. This widespread release has become an imperative issue to global aquatic ecosystems. Since pharmaceuticals are designed to alter physiological mechanisms, some concern about developing organisms in surface waters receiving sewage effluent is warranted. Therefore, an assessment of the developmental toxicity of eleven widely used pharmaceuticals was conducted using the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay: Xenopus (FETAX). Xenopus laevis is a useful model organism because of its rapid development and sensitivity to environmental changes. Xenopus blastulae (Nieuwkoop and Faber Stage 9) were exposed for 96 hours to commonly prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), fluoroquinolones, statins, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, antibiotics, stimulants, and anti-epileptics, in a single-compound static-renewal test. Toxicity, teratogenicity, [LC50/EC50 (malformation)], minimum concentration to inhibit growth, and types and severity of resultant malformations were determined. LC50s and EC50s of the NSAIDS, SSRIs and one antibiotic ranged from 10.0 to >100.0 mg/L. Effects and toxicity varied between and within compound class. Fluoroquinolones, stimulants, anti-epileptics, and some antibiotics did not show signs of toxicity and (or) teratogenicity at singular concentrations. Mixtures of pharmaceuticals were not tested. The effect concentrations in the present study were orders of magnitude above the known concentration of singular pharmaceuticals detected in surface water and sewage effluent.
Key words: Xenopus laevis, FETAX, pharmaceuticals
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