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PW07 Pesticides and Pharmaceuticals
(PW122) Active ingredients, formulations, and tank mixes: What should be regulated?
Grue, C1, Curran, C1, Grassley, J1, Smith, B1, Gardner, S2, Kubena, K3, 1 Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA2 Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, La Paz, BCS, Mexico3 US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC, USA
ABSTRACT- Pesticides are applied as either the formulated product or as a tank mix. Formulations may vary in type, such as emulsifiable concentrates or granulars. They consist of the active ingredient, inert ingredients, and carrier, and may include adjuvants. Tank mixes include the formulated product, additional carrier, and any adjuvants recommended by the pesticide manufacturer. In some cases, the formulated product may represent the tank mix, that which is actually applied in the target environment. The regulation of pesticides has focused on the efficacy of the formulation in controlling the target pest(s) and the potential for adverse effects of the active ingredient on non-target species. The purpose of our presentation is to increase awareness about the potential additional toxic effects on non-target species associated with ingredients within pesticide formulations and tank mixes other than active ingredients, and to suggest that these effects be considered in the regulatory process. After all, it is the "end product" that is released into the environment. We briefly review the evidence indicating formulations and tank mixes can be significantly more toxic than active ingredients and recommend that either standard laboratory toxicity tests supporting pesticide registrations include data for end products or that operational "field" studies be included within the regulatory framework.
Key words: Formulated Product, Active Ingredient, Adjuvant, Tank Mix
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