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PH05 Fate and Effects of Energetic Compounds
(PH027) Accumulation of Trinitrotoluene (TNT) in Aquatic Organisms.
Belden, J1, Ownby, D1, Lotufo, G2, Lydy, M1, 1 Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL, USA2 U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS, USA
ABSTRACT- The potential of TNT to accumulate in aquatic organisms was assessed by determining bioconcentration factors for TNT and TNT biotransformation products using two benthic invertebrates (Chironomus tentans and Lumbriculus variegatus) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), and by determining the bioaccumulation factor of TNT and TNT biotransformation products due to TNT exposure via feeding for channel catfish. In all three species, TNT was rapidly biotransformed resulting in minimal accumulation. The bioconcentration factors for parent TNT ranged from 3 to 4 mL g-1 for the invertebrate species, and 0.79 mL g-1 for catfish. The TNT bioaccumulation factor for catfish via oral exposure of food pellets was 2.4 x 10-5 g g-1 based on the concentration of TNT in the food pellet. As indicated by this small bioaccumulation factor, TNT accumulation in channel catfish through trophic transfer would be negligible as compared to aqueous exposure. TNT extractable biotransformation products accumulated to a greater degree than parent TNT. In addition, a large fraction of the radioactivity resisted solvent extraction. The highest bioconcentration factors occurred in L. variegatus with extractable radioactivity measuring 76 mL g-1 and total radioactivity measuring 216 mL g-1 as a result of the accumulation of biotransformation products. Further research identifying and determining the relative toxicities of these biotransformation products is necessary to fully evaluate the environmental risk posed by exposure to TNT.
Key words: Ictalurus punctatus, trinitrotoluene, bioconcentration, explosives
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