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HP4 Environmental Metabolomics
() Metabolic changes due to pesticide exposure in chinook salmon early life-stages determined by NMR-based metabolomics.
Pincetich, C1, Viant, M2, Tjeerdema, R1, 1 Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, USA2 School of Biosciences, The Universtiy of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
ABSTRACT- NMR-based metabolomics was used to determine the effects of three pesticides, diazinon, esfenvalerate, and dinoseb, on the health and viability of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) early life-stages. Eyed eggs and alevins were exposed to individual pesticides for 96 h. Survivors were flash frozen, subjected to a perchloric acid extraction process, lyophilized, and one-dimensional 1H NMR spectra of the reconstituted extracts were acquired. Using a custom written MATLAB code, spectra were segmented into 2,000 chemical shift bins, normalized to total spectral area, and the area within each bin was integrated. Unsupervised, multivariate analysis of the NMR data was performed with principal components analyses (PCA). PCA scores plots revealed a dose-response relationship between increasing pesticide exposure concentration and sublethal metabolic effects in eyed eggs exposed to diazinon, esfenvalerate, and dinoseb and in alevins exposed to diazinon and esfenvalerate. Clustering patterns in the PCA scores plots clearly indicated two distinct metabolic profiles resulting from diazinon and dinoseb exposure, consistent with their dissimilar modes of action. Differences in the metabolic response to diazinon exposure between eyed eggs and alevins suggested that an entirely different metabolic condition was induced at the later life-stage. In addition, the dose-response pattern of sample clustering in the PCA scores plots of diazinon exposed alevins indicated the induction of different metabolic conditions at the highest dose, in which 13% mortality occurred. Overall, NMR-based metabolomics is a powerful tool to elucidate metabolic changes due to pesticide exposure in early life-stages of fish.
Key words: NMR, metabolomics, pesticide, salmon early life-stage
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