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PT04 Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in Wastewater Treatment Effluents
(PT063) A framework for investigating cause in pulp and paper environmental effects monitoring in Canada.
Hewitt, M.1, Dube, M.2, Ribey, S.3, Hedley, K.3, Lowell, R.2, Culp, J.2, 4, MacLatchy, D.4, Munkittrick, K.4, 1 AEPRB, National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario, Canada2 AEIRB, National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada3 WQMB, National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada4 Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada
ABSTRACT- Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) has completed two cycles in the pulp and paper sector and has established several national patterns of effects in fish and benthos of receiving waters. One of the potential requirements for pulp mills demonstrating consistent effects is an investigation of the causes of the effects. We propose utilizing a tiered approach that has been constructed around ongoing research projects characterizing sources and identities of bioactive chemicals that originate from the pulp and papermaking process. A determination of cause ultimately ends with the confirmation of individual chemicals present in an effluent that elicit the responses observed in conducting EEM studies. It is our contention that this level of detail is not required at all sites where differences have been noted, nor is it economically feasible. We propose that the depth to which an investigation of cause is conducted be determined on a site-specific basis that is decided upon by stakeholders using the framework described. The tiers within our framework are a progression towards providing more information on the sources and then identities of the responsible compounds. The initial direction of any investigation of cause will depend on the response patterns obtained from EEM monitoring studies. Source identifications involve investigating combined and individual process effluents within the industrial facility to determine their relative contributions to the effects that have been observed. The final tiers involve isolating and characterizing the individual chemicals associated with the responses. This framework can be used in a stakeholder decision-making process to determine the extent of the investigation. Intensive research projects utilizing the approaches within this framework at selected sites will ultimately provide a database of causative processes and/or substances that will be useful in conducting future investigations.
Key words: environmental effects monitoring, pulp mill effluent, cause and effect, framework
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