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TA3 Metals in the Environment: Aquatic Biological Perspectives
() Sulfide, or Everything I need to know I could have learned in kindergarten.
Paquin, P.1, Brix, K.2, Gorsuch, J.3, Mathew, R.1, Santore, R.4, Wu, K.1, Di Toro, D.1, 5, 1 HydroQual Inc., Mahwah, NJ, USA2 EcoTox, Coral Gables, FL, USA3 Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY, USA4 HydroQual Inc., Camillus, NY, USA5 University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA
ABSTRACT- The Silver Research Program is an industry-sponsored effort that has supported scientific investigations of the fate and effects of silver since the early 1990's. This effort has led to significant advances in the understanding of silver chemistry and how the interaction of silver with other ligands controls its environmental fate and effects. Sulfide, in particular, has been shown to be especially important in this regard. Thus, some key scientific developments that have shed light on the importance of sulfide in assessing the fate and effects of silver will be reviewed. The context will be broadened to show how the presence of sulfide, in both abiotic and biotic settings, has important implications to the fate and effects of not only silver, but of several other metals as well. Some early developments in the fields of chemistry and toxicology, developments that have contributed significantly to our current understanding of metal toxicity, will be reviewed in support of the somewhat exaggerated contention that Everything I need to know I could have learned in kindergarten. And while many of the important fundamental principles had in fact been demonstrated by the mid-1950's, much still remained to be accomplished post-1990 if this information was to find use in a regulatory context. The Silver Research Program served as one important vehicle by which this could be achieved. Several highlights of these more recent efforts will also be reviewed.
Key words: silver water quality criteria, metal toxicity, sulfide chemistry, biotic ligand model
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