M5 AM Managing Environment Issues for the Next 25 Years: The Role of Science|
Monday, 14 November 2005: 8:00 AM - 11:40 AM in 321-323
37 (KAC-1117-843881) Environmental Science and Management In a Post-Modern World: The Role of Environmental Ethics.
Start time: 8:00 AM
Kaczmar, Swiatoslav1, 2, 1 O'Brien and Gere Engineers., Syracuse, NY, USA2 Syracuse University., Syracuse, NY, USA
The past 300 years of "modern" history was a period of rapid and significant advances in science and technology. Much of this progress can be attributed to the separation of science from the influence of religious and political institutions of the time. The separation allowed the practice of science and engineering as an independant, objective undertaking. The advancement of science and technology was instrumental to the industrial revolution. New technology provided valuable goods and benefits, in a mostly unregulated manner. However, many current environmental problems can be attributed to the inability of science and government of the time to work together to identify potential impacts of new products and processes. Today's environmental scientists characterize impacts and design remedies with consideration of ecological, economic, regulatory and societal endpoints and priorities. Many believe that enviromental regulations and procedures governing their work are excessive, do not provide cost-effective protection, and are not supported by objective science. Others believe that the earth is facing a serious crisis, requiring immediate intervention. Scientific "facts" are presented in support of both arguments. Social scientists, philosophers and others suggest that the world has entered a "post-modern" period, heavily influencd by popular culture, where the separation between science and social, religious and governmental institutions is less pronounced. Reducing the separation promotes contribution by a range of parties and collaborative problem solving. However, institutions are often defining science, and scientists are influencing public opinion and policy. This introduces a potential for advancement of agendas, and the loss of the identity, independance and objectivity of scientists and the scientific process. A major challenge faced by environmental scientists and regulators in a "post-modern" future will be to recognize the significance and ethical implications of their actions when defining, communicating and solving environmental problems. This presentation examines the role and influence of science in a post-modern, resource-limited world, and presents a set of principles to be considered by practitioners for the development of a professional and environmental ethic.
38 (ASH-1118-440431) Exploring Science: A Undergraduate Non-Science Majors Course Aimed at Developing Life-Long Environmental Science Literacy.
Start time: 8:20 AM
Ashley, Jeffrey1, Bockarie, Anne1, Bryant, Amanda1, Buchanan, George1, Dispensa, Jaclyn1, Halscheid, Evan1, Miller, Joell1, Pierce, John1, Ross, Faye1, Simon, Egbert1, 1 Philadelphia University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
At Philadelphia University, non-science majors must complete a two-course science sequence. We have designed and implemented an interdisciplinary inquiry-based second course in the sequence called Exploring Science. This hands-on, inquiry-driven course has adopted successful pedagogical approaches that build critical thinking skills, promote life-long learning, instill a greater appreciation of the scientific mode of inquiry, and enhance and sustain awareness of critical environmental and human health issues. In the first half of the course, students explore human and environmental health issues (e.g., obesity, genetically modified food, endocrine disrupting chemicals, water quality) through weekly modules which hone specific skills such as evaluating web-site credibility, developing quality assurance and control measures, and formulating hypotheses and means of testing them. In the latter half of the course, students collect, analyze and present vital and usable data to agencies addressing pressing environmental problems in the Philadelphia area using the skills learned in previous modules. Collaboration with regional environmental agencies provided scientific data for management and policy decisions. Student learning, science literacy, and attitudes/enthusiasm, quantified through pre/post surveys, the Student Assessment of Learning Goals (SALG) and the Science Attitude Inventory (SAI), were all enhanced significantly after this one-semester course.
39 (DRA-1117-825847) Literature-based case studies stimulate debate and critical thinking in an undergraduate environmental chemistry course.
Start time: 8:40 AM
Draper, A1, 1 Trinity College, Hartford, CT, USA
To improve the understanding of concepts, critical thinking, and to stimulate debate on environmental issues, literature-based case studies have been designed for a junior-level undergraduate environmental chemistry course. Each case study begins with an packet of representative reading around an issue; most contain at least one introductory reading from the lay press, at least one article from the peer-reviewed literature, and many include scientific opinion pieces. Students must read the case and prepare a paper with personal reactions, but very little summary. One class period is then spent discussing the case. Normally, the discussion is catalyzed by the students' papers, and the instructor only moderates. Following the discussion, students are assigned a short response paper in which they must show what they have learned through the class discussion. In improving student learning through these case studies, three factors are critically important. First, the two-part writing assignment is essential. Students must write to be prepared for class discussion, and they must write afterward to synthesize the ideas presented in discussion. Without either writing assignment, the case study is not brought full-circle. Second, case studies are most effective when there is some controversy because it forces students to take a stand and read critically for scientific information which supports or refutes their argument. In this way, one case study topic that is successful each year is the Proposed World Ban of DDT. Finally, case studies are most effective when textbook concepts are clearly illustrated. In the DDT case, for example, understanding biotransformation is crucial to understanding the long-term consequences of DDT use. Case studies are used to supplement and enforce concepts, but do so in a way that stimulates critical thinking, debate and learning about current, relevant environmental issues.
40 (RAY-1117-816497) Tropical Biology: An integrated science field experience for undergraduate environmental education.
Start time: 9:00 AM
Rayburn, James1, Cline, George1, Romano III, Frank1, Gregg, Kelly1, 1 Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, AL, USA
Tropical biology is an extensive field experience to study the flora and fauna of tropical regions in Florida. The class includes lectures and snorkel training preparing the students for a 10 day intensive field trip. During the lectures we stressed identification species emphasizing coral reef fishes and invertebrates, their habitat, environmental problems and conservation issues. The class visited sites along the Florida Gulf Coast from the panhandle (St. Andrews Bay) to the Florida Keys and the Dry Tortugas demonstrating threatened and endangered ecosystems and habitat. For many of these students it was there first experiences with coral reefs and their associated organisms. The class snorkeled with manatees, on coral reefs and sea-grass beds. Over 100 species of fish and over 100 kinds of invertebrates were identified by the class. During this study, students compared ecological communities and evaluated human impact and environmental concerns impacting costal habitats. The students observed new species/taxa each day. The course utilized a Reef Fish Survey Form available from Reef Environmental Education Foundation as a model for all surveys conducted in the class. This survey increased classes' interest and helped the class understand the importance of collecting these data. The class was challenging for both students and professors as the number of species in the different habitats increased. This total immersion in identification of organisms in different ecological niches gave the students a more comprehensive, "real world" understanding of threats to the worlds' reefs. Overall classes like this increase environmental education by showing students real world issues and habitat like coral reefs, and why steps need to be taken to protect these valuable resources. Students given these experiences showed higher interest in pursuing environmental careers including pursuing Masters and Ph.D. degrees.
(58123) COFFEE BREAK.
Start time: 9:20 AM
42 (ERI-1117-826464) Consequences of Environmental Responsibility: Law, Justice or Politics?
Start time: 10:20 AM
Erickson, C1, 1 none, Shenandoah, VA, USA
Environmental intimidation by large corporate entities and/or their political ties has been an ongoing phenomenon for many years in the field in which environmental professionals are employed, yet seemingly little visibility has been brought forward to these civil and often criminal acts, due to fear/intimidation of the victims, and settlement by the corporate entities engaged in these events. The fact that these acts occur, and continue to occur, as attested by agents with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, other federal and state employees (both victims and non-victims), as well as victims of the civil and often criminal acts, suggests professionalism run astray. This paper will present some brief history of environmental intimidation, some of which will have been brought to media attention, others of which through case trials, or attempted case trials. The presentation will attempt to detail at least three case studies, and an examination of what happened, what should have happened, and lessons learned. The objective of this paper is 1) to shed some light on the darker side of the environmental profession, and 2) to ask the question what can we, as environmental professionals, do to prevent it?
43 (KRA-1117-720728) The Future of Great Lakes Governance.
Start time: 10:40 AM
krantzberg, g1, 1 McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
The International Joint Commission (IJC) is an independent binational organization established by the Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909. The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA), first signed in 1972, revised in 1978 and by protocol in 1987, expresses the commitment of each country to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the waters of the Great Lakes basin ecosystem. The GLWQA is a standing reference to the IJC under the Boundary Waters Treaty. Article X (4) of the GLWQA calls for Canada and United States to conduct a comprehensive review of the operation and effectiveness of the GLWQA following every third biennial report of the IJC. No review of the GLWQA has been completed since 1987. The GLWQA already includes the concept of ecosystem-based management in a number of places, but the concept is not well developed and it sometimes appears to conflict with other language that emphasizes water quality. The GLWQA also needs to emphasize ecosystem integrity in the context of the multi-media nature of the environmental problems encountered on the Great Lakes. Many aspects of ecosystem integrity have matured since the 1987 amendments. These aspects for the future of Great Lakes governance could be made explicit in order to balance the historic focus on chemical degradation. There is an opportunity to insert terms and phrases in various annexes to reflect ongoing ecosystem-based management programs. Over the last 30 years the Great Lakes have been recognized as an international model for environmental protection and institutional cooperation. When the GLWQA is reviewed beginning 2006, it should call on the current state of the science to ensure the Great Lakes region has the opportunity to provide world leadership in addressing the sustainability issues of today.
44 (REA-1117-816139) Ecological Science as the Basis for Integrating Environmental Management Activities.
Start time: 11:00 AM
Reagan, D.1, 1 Doug Reagan & Associates, LLC, Castle Rock, CO, USA
Approaches for managing natural resources have developed rapidly during the past four decades, largely in response to a growing awareness of the magnitude of human impacts on the environment. The resulting system of laws and regulations, in the U.S as in many other countries has been generated primarily in response to particular environmental issues, creating a reactive and piecemeal approach for managing the environment. Responsibilities for managing different resources (e.g., water, air, forests, wildlife) have been assigned to different agencies, further fragmenting environmental management activities. The approach presented here recognizes that management involves decision-making, and that decisions are made on the basis of values. Ecological science provides the framework for integrating information from the physical, biological, and social sciences to determine the environmental values on which decisions are made and to evaluate the interrelationships among living organisms and between living organisms (including humans) and their environment. Steps in the process include: goal (or problem) identification, values identification (ecological and human) for the environment being managed, and data collection and analysis focused on management decision-making. Stakeholder involvement and active participation are essential elements of the approach. Successful application of this framework has enabled environmental managers to achieve workable solutions and to avoid or resolve environmental conflicts by enhancing communications among stakeholders for projects including risk assessment and management, environmental impact assessment, natural resource damage assessment, and protected area management planning at local and regional scales. Because of its foundation in ecological science and ability to incorporate the stakeholder values, the framework is transportable across political boundaries, applicable to all environments involving natural resources, independent of any particular ideology, and applicable to environmental management activities at all scales.
45 (GRU-1118-068201) Advocacy, the media, litigation, public perceptions and the future of science in natural resource management.
Start time: 11:20 AM
grue, christian1, 1 University of Washington, seattle, WA, USA
As scientists, we hope that natural resource management decisions will be based on the best available science and that, through adaptive management, decisions and policies will evolve concurrently with advancements in understanding. Increasingly, however, it appears that advocacy, the media, and litigation are driving natural resource management decisions and, as a result, public perceptions of the value of science have been diminished. Unfortunately, this comes at a time when the political views on a number of social and environmental issues are highly polarized and when a number of legislative acts dealing with the environmental protections are due for reauthorization. To what extent have we, as scientists, contributed to this situation? Or, does it reflect the increasing complexities of science and natural resource management at a time of diminishing natural resources, increasing human population, increasing concerns over private property rights, and advances in communication and information transfer? Recent case studies from the Pacific Northwest and elsewhere will be reviewed. The need for science to be judged by its quality and not affiliations and sponsorship; for greater cooperation and collaboration among scientists, regulators and stakeholders; and for a greater focus on education and citizen science will be emphasized.