T4 PM Endangered Species and Environmental Contaminants: Status of the Science (Part 2)|
Tuesday, 15 November 2005: 1:50 PM - 5:30 PM in Ballroom 4
331 (MEA-1117-846663) Biological responses in juvenile chinook salmon from dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).
Start time: 1:50 PM
Meador, J1, Sommers, F1, Ylitalo, G1, Brown, D1, 1 NOAA Fisheries, Seattle, WA, USA
A dose-response feeding study with juvenile ocean-type chinook salmon fed PAHs in their diet for 53 days indicated adverse effects on fish growth and alterations in whole-body lipids and several blood chemistry parameters. The experiment consisted of 5 treatments and a control with 4 tank replicates per treatment. Each 500 L tank contained 50 fish and fish weight was used as a metric for assessing growth. The mean and variance for fish weight on day 0, indicated that all 24 tank replicates were statistically identical. On day 58, fish were weighed individually and treatments compared. When treatment means were tested by ANOVA, only the highest dose showed a significant reduction in mean body weight. Additional statistical examination of the data revealed significantly higher variability in fish weights from all treatments compared to the control. Most of the observed differences were due to higher proportions of lighter and heavier fish in some treatments compared to the control. Various whole-body lipid classes (triglycerides, phospholipids, wax esters), in addition to total lipid, were altered in most PAH treatments. Several of the blood chemistry parameters measured (cholesterol, triglycerides, lipase, creatinine, and albumin) were significantly affected by PAH exposure, which is consistent with our hypothesis of altered bioenergetics in the treated fish. Alterations in fish size and lipid content have important implications for reduced survival in juvenile chinook.
332 (YLI-1117-745045) Pacific salmon as potential sources of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in southern resident killer whales.
Start time: 2:10 PM
Ylitalo, Gina1, O'Neill, Sandra2, Brown, Donald1, West, James2, Sloan, Catherine1, Bolton, Jennie1, Krahn, Margaret1, 1 NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, ECD, Seattle, WA, United States2 Washington Deparment of Fish and Wildlife, Puget Sound Ambient Monitoring Program, Olympia, WA, United States
From 1996 to 2001, the southern resident killer whale (Orcinus orca) population residing in Puget Sound/Georgia Basin declined 20%. Due to this decline, NOAA Fisheries has recently proposed to list the southern resident population as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Potential factors contributing to the population decline include reduced prey quality/quantity, exposure to high levels of toxic, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and noise and disturbance from vessel traffic. Studies to date have shown that southern residents contain higher concentrations of POPs than northern resident killer whales. Elevated contaminant levels may be due to dietary differences between these two whale populations or to regional differences in POP concentrations in their prey. A dietary study indicated that, during the summer months, the primary prey of northern and southern resident whales are salmon, particularly Chinook salmon. To determine if there were regional differences in POP concentrations in known summer prey of northern and southern resident whales, we sampled free-ranging salmon from summer feeding areas of southern and northern resident killer whales. We found significantly higher levels of PCBs and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in whole bodies of Chinook and coho returning to Puget Sound than those measured in other Pacific coast salmon populations. Concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs in Puget Sound Chinook populations were 3-5 times higher than those measured in Chinook from other locations. Similarly, concentrations of these compounds were 3-5 times higher in southern residents than those in northern resident killer whales. Examination of ratios of contaminants in southern residents and their potential prey showed that the whales are more likely feeding on salmon than other prey fish species from the Puget Sound region. From these data, it appears that Chinook salmon, especially Puget Sound populations, are the likely sources of POPs to southern resident killer whales.
333 (JOH-1117-763059) Evaluation of Pesticides in Central Valley Vernal Pools.
Start time: 2:30 PM
Johnson, C1, Schwarzbach, S2, Tjeerdema, R3, 1 U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Sacramento, CA, USA2 U. S. Geological Survey, Sacramento, CA, USA3 University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA
Vernal pools are a unique ephemeral wetland feature of California native landscape which have been heavily impacted over the past century by agricultural and urban development. Current estimates of habitat losses in the Central Valley range from 50% to 85% of pre-settlement acreage. While physical effects have been emphasized in most previous research on vernal pools there is increasing reason to suspect contaminant impacts may also imperil these isolated and vulnerable ephemeral wetlands. Vernal pools often exist within a matrix of agricultural activity in the Central Valley, and even on National Wildlife Refuges they may receive pesticides and other contaminants through aerial deposition. Vernal Pool water was collected for pesticide analysis from the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex and the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge Complex; representing the northern and southern geography of the Central Valley. Pesticide residues were extracted from the water samples using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) confirmed via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Analysis on the GC was run in SCAN mode to simultaneously evaluate multiple analytes. Standards from each class were used for retention time confirmation and quantification. Concentrations of detected analytes include legacy organochlorines (heptachlor), organophosphates (diazinon), organonitrogens (trifluralin) and a number of pthalates.
334 (DAV-1117-836850) Correlating the sublethal neurotoxicty of carbaryl with behavioral impairments in salmonids.
Start time: 2:50 PM
Davis, J1, Labenia, J2, Baldwin, D2, French, B2, Scholz, N2, 1 U.S. FWS - Western Washington Fish & Wildlife Office, Lacey, WA, USA2 NOAA Fisheries - Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA, USA
Foraging habitat of coastal cutthroat trout, which inhabit Willapa Bay, Washington, is periodically contaminated with carbaryl. Salmonids, such as cutthroat trout, forage throughout the estuary in the summer months when carbaryl, a carbamate insecticide, is applied to oyster beds at low tide to control burrowing shrimp populations. Previously proposed for listing under the Endangered Species Act, this population of coastal cutthroat trout is potentially exposed to sublethal concentrations of carbaryl that is transported off-site from oyster beds via tidal activity. On the day of spray, carbaryl has been measured in the estuarine water column at concentrations >1,000 ppb. Previous studies determined cutthroat trout do not show an olfactory response to carbaryl, do not avoid carbaryl-containing water, and that short-term carbaryl exposure rapidly (<2 hrs) depresses brain and muscle acetylcholinesterase activity in a dose-dependent manner (IC50s of 213 ppb and 185 ppb, respectively) for approximately two days. Sublethal, neurotoxicity bioassays with behavioral assessment endpoints were utilized to determine the impacts of environmentally relevant carbaryl concentrations on the swimming behavior of cutthroat trout as well as their vulnerability to predation. Results indicate salmonids' swimming performance and ability to avoid predation are significantly affected at carbaryl concentrations ≥750 ppb and ≥500 ppb, respectively. Therefore, carbaryl applications in the estuary may impair the behavioral performance of exposed cutthroat trout and increase their vulnerability to predators.
Start time: 3:10 PM
335 (OST-1117-769573) Mom its all your fault! Maternal transfer of contaminants in San Francisco estuary striped bass.
Start time: 3:50 PM
Ostrach, D1, Low, J1, Whiteman, S1, Zinkl, J1, 1 University of California at Davis, Davis, CA, USA
The Striped bass population in the San Francisco Estuary collapsed in the 1970s reaching the lowest 38mm index of abundance ever in 2004. Field and laboratory investigations indicate sublethal contaminant exposure of early life stages of striped bass occurs in this estuary but is poorly understood. Female striped bass were captured using standard electro-fishing techniques during the spring months of 1999-2001. River-captured and hatchery-reared F-3 generation (control) female striped bass were spawned, eggs hatched and larvae reared under identical conditions during all 3 years. Pre-spawn eggs were obtained and frozen for subsequent analysis. Organic chemical and pesticide analysis was performed by GC-ECD and trace element analysis by ICP-MS. Larvae from hatchery-reared and river-collected females were sampled at 1 - 16 days after hatching and fixed in 10% formalin. Whole larvae were embedded in glycol methacrylate, serial sectioned at 4 microns thickness and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathological evaluation. Yolk, brain, liver and whole body data was obtained for each larvae using the Computer Assisted Stereology Toolbox and volumes calculated using the Cavalieri method. Biologically significant levels of PCBs, PBDEs and pesticides were found in all egg samples from river-collected striped bass. Significant differences in yolk utilization, brain development, liver development and overall growth was observed in larvae from the river-collected female striped bass as compared with controls. Chemical analysis and histopathological results suggest that contaminants found in the eggs are causing endocrine and CNS disruption during early stage larval development. This study provides clear evidence of maternal transfer of xenobiotics and their effects on larval striped bass in the San Francisco Estuary system. This investigation presents new information that can help to better understand the fate of contaminants and manage the problems associated with maternal transfer of xenobiotics in fish populations in this estuary system.
336 (HAL-1116-007432) Deriving Chloride Aquatic Life Thresholds - Upper Santa Clara River (CA): Protecting Endangered Species.
Start time: 4:10 PM
Hall, S1, Byrn, K1, Beeson, D1, Lockwood, R1, Ruffell, K2, Gully, J2, 1 ADVENT-ENVIRON, Brentwood, TN, USA2 County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County, Whittier, CA, USA
BSTRACT. The Upper Santa Clara River (USCR) supports a variety of aquatic life, including Threatened and Endangered (T&E) species, such as the unarmored three-spine stickleback. The river is effluent dominated and habitat limited. We examined the chloride sensitivity of several aquatic and riparian species, with special emphasis on resident species, T&E species, and important riparian plants (e.g., cottonwoods). The primary objective of this study was to recommend appropriate acute and chronic aquatic chloride thresholds for the USCR incorporating new data since the federal chloride criteria were developed. Several methods were used to develop a weight-of-evidence in support of proposed thresholds. The methods included review of federal criteria, recalculation of the criteria and the acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR), verification of the site-specific applicability of candidate thresholds using the Salinity Toxicity Relationship model, application of ACRs to estimate safe chronic thresholds, chloride toxicity testing of surrogates for key T&E species, habitat assessment, and a review of the salinity tolerance of cottonwoods. Recalculation of chloride aquatic life criteria resulted in a lower acute threshold and higher chronic threshold of 544 mg/L and 278 mg/L, respectively, as compared to respective federal criteria of 860 mg/L and 230 mg/L. Additional threshold derivations indicated that an acute threshold of 605 mg/L chloride was protective of USCR aquatic life, including T&E species. The recalculated chronic threshold of 278 mg/L is well below chronic chloride levels protective of Upper SCR biota, including T&E species and cottonwoods.
337 (WAR-1117-829576) Risk assessment of water quality in streams supporting federally-endangered freshwater mussels in North Carolina.
Start time: 4:30 PM
Ward, S1, Augspurger, T1, 1 US Fish and Wildlife Service, Raleigh, NC
To determine if impaired water quality is a limiting factor in the recovery of endangered freshwater mussels, site-specific water quality data were collected from Goose Creek, Swift Creek, and Tar River in North Carolina. These streams support the endangered Carolina heelsplitter (Lasmigona decorata) and dwarf wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon). Metals, total residual chlorine, and ammonia concentrations were measured bimonthly in 2002 and 2003 at sites bracketing known wastewater sources and mussel habitats. Results were compared to estimates of chemical concentrations likely to be protective of mussels (when freshwater mussel toxicity data were available), site-specific screening values (adjusted for local hardness and pH conditions for metals and ammonia, respectively), and appropriate water quality criteria and state standards. Water chemistry results were also compared to existing datasets from local and state monitoring networks. In all drainages, our total copper concentrations exceeded the federal ambient water quality criteria (adjusted for local hardness) for acute exposures in 10 to 41% of samples. In addition, copper concentrations in the Goose Creek and Tar River drainages exceeding the state action level for copper (7 ug/l) were found in 26 and 10% of samples, respectively, while no exceedences were observed in Swift Creek. State ambient data for stations within these watersheds confirm that the 75th percentile values (ranging between 3.2 and 6.0 ug/L) for the period of record are above acute screening values at three of four stations. Chlorine concentrations exceeding federal water quality criteria and the State water quality standard of 17 ug/l were observed in 14 and 35 percent of samples from Goose Creek and Tar River drainages, respectively; they were never exceeded in Swift Creek. Acute and chronic site-specific ammonia screening values derived for protection of freshwater mussels were exceeded in 6 and 15 percent of samples, respectively, in Goose Creek; however, ammonia concentrations were generally below levels of concern in the remaining two drainages.
338 (SPA-1117-746134) Results of Glypro® exposure to red-eared slider embryos.
Start time: 4:50 PM
Sparling, D.1, 1 Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL, USA
The bog turtle is a threatened species in the Mid Atlantic States and Northeast U.S. It requires a mid successional habitat which must be actively managed to be maintained. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service desires to control woody vegetation through the use of selected herbicides including glyphosate. However, because of the species status, it is critical to ascertain the safety of broadcasted herbicides before it is used in a listed species habitat. We conducted a study on the effects of Glypro® and a surfactant, LI700, on embryos of the red-eared slider, a surrogate species. Eggs were dipped into Glypro + LI700 solutions that ranged from 0% to 95% Glypro. Control eggs were dipped into reconstituted soft water. All eggs were incubated at 270C which should have produced 100% phenotypic males in this temperature dependent sex determination species. Two weeks post hatch the turtles were euthanized, livers were dissected for glutathione analysis, blood samples were sent to a laboratory for flow cytometry analysis of DNA content, and internal organs were fixed for histological examination. Hatching success was significantly lower for turtles exposed to 95% Glypro than controls. Body mass at hatching could not be distinguished among turtles but two weeks post hatch those that had been exposed to the highest concentrations of Glypro had lower body mass than did controls. Chromosomal damage, as determined by flow cytometry, showed a dose response relationship with turtles at higher concentrations of Glypro having greater evidence of damage. At the time of this abstract gonadal histology was still being examined.
339 (SCH-1118-073878) Risk Assessment and Endangered Species Management at a Military Installation.
Start time: 5:10 PM
Schmidt, A1, Tyrell, K2, 1 BHE Environmental, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio, USA2 BHE Environmental, Inc., Knoxville, Tennessee, USA
A predictive ecological risk assessment (ERA) was completed to assess toxicological effects of the proposed use of fog oil, terephthalic acid smoke pots and smoke grenades, colored smoke grenades, titanium dioxide, and other military training materials to federally endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis), gray bats (Myotis grisescens), and federally threatened bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) that occur on Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri (FLW). The ERA was completed as part of a biological assessment (BA) of the proposed Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) relocation of the U.S. Army Chemical School from Fort McClellan, Alabama to FLW. The BRAC realignment implements fog oil obscurant (smoke) training at FLW. The BA and ERA were completed to support compliance with requirements of the Endangered Species Act and National Environmental Policy Act. The ERA focused on adults and certain nonadult life cycle stages of each species. Exposure concentrations of fog oil and other training materials were predicted using air dispersion models that incorporated input parameters developed from proposed training scenarios for FLW. Intake equations were developed using site-specific receptor information for each receptor and life cycle stage. Toxicity values (estimated NOAELs) were derived from published values and modified using uncertainty factors. Risks were defined using a Hazard Quotient method. Direct effects were assessed quantitatively, and indirect effects were evaluated qualitatively. This information was used to evaluate training scenarios with the goal of managing risk to sensitive receptors. Since the inception of fog oil training at FLW several years ago, monitoring studies have been conducted to identify post-implementation effects of this mission on environmental receptors. We will discuss approaches used to predict risk to sensitive receptors, evaluate actual effects of fog oil training, and the ways in which these techniques have been successfully used to support ongoing compliance and conservation efforts at FLW.