R5 PM Avian Sentinels of Environmental Contamination|
Thursday, 17 November 2005: 1:50 PM - 5:30 PM in 321-323
709 (GOL-1117-549200) The Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) and Osprey (Pandion haliaetus): A comparison of two widely used sentinel species of environmental contamination.
Start time: 1:50 PM
Golden, N1, Custer, C2, 1 US Fish and Wildlife Service, Arlington, VA, USA2 USGS Upper Midwest Environmental Science Center, La Crosse, WI, USA
The high trophic status of many terrestrial vertebrates makes them an important group of species for contaminant biomonitoring. Concentrations measured in tissues can reveal a toxicant's bioavailability and degree of accumulation in biota. Historically, large-scale monitoring of avian species has focused on those collected from hunting activities (e.g., waterfowl and game birds) or as a consequence of their abundance over a wide geographical area (e.g. starlings). However, site-specific research and management questions often call for a more refined choice of sentinels for ecotoxicological studies. The tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) and osprey (Pandion haliaetus) are two species whose behavioral and life history characteristics have rendered them particularly useful for monitoring contaminant exposure and effects in terrestrial vertebrates. The propensity of the swallow to nest in artificial boxes and its simple, well-defined food chain provide an avenue to assess the extent of contamination in a selected habitat, possible effects of those contaminants, and the degree of bioavailability to even higher level trophic feeders such as raptors. The swallow has been broadly utilized to assess site-specific contamination, determine the effects on exposed organisms, and develop biomarkers of exposure and effect for future monitoring efforts. The osprey, a piscivorous species with a high tendency to accumulate lipophilic chemicals, has been increasingly employed as an indicator of pollution in North American bays, rivers, and estuaries. The osprey is a widespread species that serves both as an accumulator of contaminants and as a species whose population has shown historic and well-studied sensitivity to contaminant insult. While both species represent upper-level consumers prone to bioaccumulation, differences in their exposure to and metabolism of toxicants can be important factors in choosing a proper sentinel for a particular study location, or may render them appropriate companion sentinels to more comprehensively examine environmental fate and effects of chemicals at a given site. The utility of each species for biomonitoring will be compared and contrasted.
710 (ELL-1117-658852) Use of satellite telemetry to track southward migration of Pacific Northwest ospreys and contaminant exposure on wintering grounds.
Start time: 2:10 PM
Elliott, J1, Morrissey, C1, Shaw, P2, Ruelas, E3, Henny, C4, 1 Canadian Wildlife Service, Delta, BC, Canada2 Environment Canada, Vancouver, BC, Canada3 Pronatura Veracruz, Xalapa, VZ, Mexico4 USGS, Corvallis, OR, USA
During 1996-2002, 18 satellite transmitters were mounted on Ospreys breeding in British Columbia, Canada, to follow the southward migration and to locate major wintering areas in Latin America. Sixteen Ospreys were successfully tracked through their fall migration and found wintering primarily in Mexico (56 %) but also in Texas, USA (19 %), Central America (Panama, Nicaragua and Costa Rica) (19 %) and South America (Venezuela) (6 %). In order to assess the origin of dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE) and other chlorinated hydrocarbons found in eggs of breeding Osprey from the Pacific Northwest, we designed the study to examine prey contaminant residues in several common fish species (n = 8 families) from major Osprey wintering areas in Mexico (n = 5 states). Concentrations of the main organochlorine contaminant, p,p'-DDE, in fish composites ranged from 4.8 - 115.2 ng/g ww. Significant differences existed among fish families in p,p'- DDE (p = 0.001), total dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethylene (p,p'-DDT) (p = 0.003), total chlordanes (p = 0.002) and sum PCBs (p = 0.02). Catfish (Family Ariidae) generally had significantly higher levels of DDT metabolites and other organochlorine contaminants compared to other fish families collected. Differences in prey contaminant levels were detected among the collection sites around coastal Mexico, with fish from Veracruz State generally having higher levels of DDT metabolites, total chlordanes, sum PCBs and hexachlorobenzene. Eggs collected from satellite-tagged Ospreys breeding throughout the Pacific Northwest (British Columbia, Oregon and Washington) showed marked variation in levels of DDT metabolites (p,p'-DDE: range 0.02 -10.1 mg/kg ww) that were related to local breeding sites but did not appear to be influenced by specific wintering ground exposure. Ospreys breeding in the Williamette basin, Oregon and Ospreys that migrated to Central or South America had lower p,p'-DDE levels in eggs and also had higher ratios of DDE:DDT, suggesting historic low level exposure rather than recent exposure to DDT compounds.
711 (AND-1117-236307) Field assessment of osprey breeding performance through a period of mine-site remediation.
Start time: 2:30 PM
Anderson, D.1, Suchanek, T.1, Eagles-Smith, C.1, 1 University of California, Davis, CA, USA
Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) were studied from 1992 through 2005 at Clear Lake, California, 14 years that spanned a pre-remediation/remediation period (4 years) and a post-remediation period (9 years). The Sulfur Bank Mercury Mine (SBMM) was the major source of Hg contamination. In 1992 and 1993, OSPR productivity (young/nest attempt) increased (P<0.02 and P<0.05) as a function of increasing distance from SBMM. Feather Hg residues in OSPR (and grebe, Aechmophorus sp.) during the earlier period indicated that individuals had high enough Hg residues to expect effects. In 1994 and 1995, the positive relationship between distance from the mine and reproductive success weakened (P<0.10); and from 1996 through 2005, it disappeared entirely (P>0.10). Hg residues in feathers of adult Osprey also declined significantly lake-wide, comparing 1992 and two later years (1999 and 2004) (P<0.01). In 1999 and 2004, Hg in OSPR feathers was comparable to (P>0.10) those from our comparison site, Eagle Lake, where reproduction was normal. Residues in fish decreased in the area nearest the remediated mine-site earlier associated with poor reproduction; and active nests in the highly affected area increased from 2 in 1994 to 6 in 2005. Yet, there were no declining trends in Hg levels of potential prey fish, lake-wide, following the 1992 remediation. The global Clear Lake OSPR population throughout, however, maintained productivity sufficient to maintain numbers, but productivity nonetheless increased (P<0.01) after remediation. The number of OSPR nests at Clear Lake consistently increased from 1992. Hg effects were probably never of population significance throughout the study; but detectable, continuing improvements in various demographic measurements were nonetheless associated with declining Hg levels. Yet, the ecological improvements at Clear Lake could not be attributed singly to the one remediation in 1992, as Hg residues were already declining from the late-1960s. Continuing Hg input from SBMM will probably require further remediation.
712 (RAT-1117-055744) Ospreys as Sentinels of Environmental Contamination in the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States.
Start time: 2:50 PM
Rattner, Barnett1, Golden, Nancy2, Toschik, Pamela3, McGowan, Peter4, 1 USGS-Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Beltsville, MD, USA2 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Arlington, VA, USA3 National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA, USA4 Chesapeake Bay Field Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Annapolis, MD, USA
Chesapeake and Delaware Bays are neighboring estuaries along the mid-Atlantic coast that are heavily affected by agriculture, industry and development. Contaminant exposure and reproductive success were studied in ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) nesting in these estuaries in 2000-2002 using the sample egg technique and nestling feathers. Detection frequency and concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorinated compounds in eggs were greater in Chesapeake regions of concern (Anacostia and Elizabeth Rivers, Baltimore Harbor) and in northern Delaware Bay/River (Chesapeake & Delaware Canal to Trenton, NJ) compared to reference sites (South, West and Rhode Rivers. MD; Inland Bays, DE). In the most industrialized regions of both Bays, contaminant concentrations in eggs were remarkably similar, although p,p'-DDE and dieldrin levels were greatest in the Delaware Bay. Notably, p,p'-DDE values in eggs collected from nests near the Anacostia River of Chesapeake Bay, and from most nests in northern Delaware Bay, fell within the range associated with 10% eggshell thinning; productivity (fledglings/nest) tended to be lower in these regions. Mercury levels in eggs were similar in both estuaries and below known effect thresholds. North-south gradients were apparent for total PCBs and PBDEs concentrations in eggs over a 200 km stretch in Delaware Bay (highest in the urbanized north), however, no such gradients were detected in the smaller tributary study areas (20-32 km length) of the Chesapeake. Nestling feathers from some Chesapeake regions of concern and the northern segment of Delaware Bay had elevated concentrations of several metals (e.g., Al, Hg, Mn, Mo, Pb, V) compared to samples from reference sites, and Hg, Ni, and Pb levels were greatest in Delaware Bay. In comparison to findings from black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) studies in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays, ospreys tend to accumulate greater quantities of organochlorines and metals, and may be a more sensitive indicator of environmental contamination.
(58069) COFFEE BREAK.
Start time: 3:10 PM
713 (CHE-1117-836540) Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Mid-Atlantic U.S. Birds of Prey: A Comparative Study.
Start time: 3:50 PM
Chen, D1, La Guardia, M1, Watts, B2, Mainor, T1, Bush, E1, Harvey, E1, Hale, R1, 1 Virginia Institute of Marine Science/College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA, U.S.2 College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA, U.S.
Birds of prey are particularly sensitive to the deleterious effects elicited by exposure to bioaccumulative pollutants. This is exacerbated by the high positions of birds in food webs. Exposure to, and disposition of, pollutants may vary between avian species, as a function of habitat, migration patterns, food preferences and metabolism. Hence, investigation of species with different preferences may thus be informative. In this study, POPs in peregrine falcon eggs from the Maryland and Virginia locales were compared to those in osprey eggs from the Chesapeake Bay region. In addition, two bald eagle eggs, one 1-day old peregrine falcon, and one 1-year old red-tailed hawk (killed in an accident) from that general area were examined. Samples were solvent extracted, purified and subjected to GC/MS analysis. Lipids were estimated by evaporation of a fraction of the extract to constant weight. In all peregrine falcon eggs, PCB153/132 was the dominant congener, followed by PCB180/193, 194, 187, 203/196, 199, 170/190, 118, and 138/158. Total PCB levels in peregrine falcon eggs (mean: 5.14; range: 0.64-13.1 mg/kg wet weight) were comparable with those in osprey eggs. The two bald eagle eggs exhibited relatively high PCB levels (36.0 and 8.22 mg/kg). The red-tailed hawk contained far lower PCBs (muscle 0.023 and liver 0.040 mg/kg). In osprey eggs, total PBDEs were much lower than PCBs and were dominated by less brominated congeners, e.g. BDE-47, consistent with major congeners observed in their major prey item fish. In contrast, falcon eggs contained burdens dominated by more brominated congeners, e.g. BDE-99 and -153.
714 (LET-1117-817210) Dachtal Isomers and Acidic Herbicides and Pesticides in Eggs of Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) From the Duwamish-Lake Washington Area of the U.S. Pacific Northwest.
Start time: 4:10 PM
Chu, S.1, Henny, C.2, Kaiser, J.2, Drouillard, K.1, Haffner, G.1, Letcher, R.1, 3, 1 University of Windsor, Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, Windsor, Ontario, Canada2 Biological Resources Division, Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Corvallis, Oregon, U.S.A.3 Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
A number of current-use, acidic herbicides and pesticides (CUPHs) including MCPP, 2,4-D, 2,4-DB, 2,4,5-T, dicamba, MCPA, triclopyr, the acid metabolites of pyrethroids (3-phenolxybenzoic acid) and dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA or dacthal) were determined in the eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) that were collected during the spring of 2003 from 15 nest sites located in four different areas, the Duwamish-Lake Washington, Lake Washington and Elliott Bay areas in the vicinity of Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., and north of Seattle in the Everett Harbour area. DCPA has proven to be difficult determine in biological matrices. Using existing methods, it is impossible to determine DCPA because it is not readily hydrolyzed to free acid, which is the common form of many other CUPHs. Thus, we developed a new analysis method for the determination of acidic CUPHs, and also DCPA, in osprey egg homogenates. Egg homogenates were extracted with hexane/ acetone, subjected to gel permeation chromatography and HPLC-Si SPE, and the CUPHs were determined by GC-MS(EI) or GC-MS(NCI). The method sensitivity was generally at the low pg/g (wet weight) levels. Average recoveries from spiked eggs was 92%. Of the 12 CUPHs analyzed in osprey eggs (n=15) only DCPA could be quantified (2 - 10 pg/g ww). An unexpected compound was found in all of the egg samples, and confirmed to be the DCPA isomer, dimethyl tetrachlorophthalate (diMe-TCP) (7 - 86 pg/g ww). To our knowledge this is the first report of DCPA isomers in an environmental sample. As diMe-TCP is not an industrial product, and not commercial available, the source of diMe-TCP is unclear. The possible source may be tetrachlorophthalic anhydride (TCPA), which is primarily used as a flame retardant in plastics. Our findings show that DCPA, diMe-TCP and perhaps other isomers are accumulated in the food chain of osprey from study areas in the vicinity of Seattle, and transferred in ovo to eggs, and thus may be of concern to the health of the developing chick and the reproductive health of these osprey populations.
715 (HEN-1117-564224) Empirical estimates of biomagnification factors (fish to osprey eggs) for PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, OCs and mercury.
Start time: 4:30 PM
Henny, C1, Kaiser, J1, Grove, R1, 1 U.S. Geological Survey, Corvallis, Oregon, USA
Limited data are available for determining biomagnification factors (BMFs) of various contaminants from fish to fish-eating birds. To estimate BMFs, it is important to understand the diet of the species of concern (on a percentage biomass basis) as well as the contaminant concentrations in each prey species or guild. The collection of eggs from a fish-eating bird of interest is generally simple, but much more effort is needed to determine the importance of each prey species (field observations at nests, and/or prey remains collections at nest sites) and then to collect the proper fish species and to apply appropriate weighting factors for residue concentrations in each prey species. An earlier paper provided the first BMF estimates for osprey nesting along the Willamette River, Oregon, in 1993. Only one BMF estimate was made for each contaminant based upon 10 osprey eggs and 25 composite samples of whole fish representing 3 species. This paper presents residue data collected along the Willamette River in 2001 (25 osprey eggs and 30 composite samples of whole fish), and provides separate BMF estimates for specific reaches of the river with somewhat different contaminant concentrations. The consistency of the BMF estimates is evaluated.
716 (CES-1117-818613) The effect of PCBs, PBDEs, and their hydroxylated metabolites on thyroid hormone and vitamin A levels in bald eagles.
Start time: 4:50 PM
Cesh, L.1, Williams, T.1, Garcelon, D.2, Letcher, R.3, Elliott, J.4, 1 Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada2 Institute for Wildlife Studies, Arcata, California, USA3 Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada4 Canadian Wildlife Service, Delta, British Columbia, Canada
Recent studies have shown polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to be notable chemicals of concern. PBDEs are widely used flame retardants and appear to be increasing exponentially in the environment. PBDEs have a similar molecular structure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs). Since these chemicals are known to be toxic, persistent, and bioaccumulative there is concern that PBDEs will have similar detrimental effects on wildlife and humans. Studies have shown that PCBs and PBDEs can impair the metabolism of vitamin A and decrease circulating thyroid hormones, which are required for proper growth, development, cell differentiation, immunology, vision, and reproduction. The objectives of this study are to monitor the levels of PCBs and PBDEs in British Columbia and southern California and to investigate potential effects of PCBs, PBDEs, and their hydroxylated metabolites on vitamin A and thyroid hormones (TT3 and TT4) in bald eagles. Blood samples were collected from nestling at 6 different sites; 5 in British Columbia and 1 in southern California. The results show a significant negative correlation between PCBs and TT4 levels in the plasma, but this relationship was not seen for TT3 or vitamin A. There was no significant relationship between PBDEs and TT4, TT3, or vitamin A. The results for the hydoxylated metabolites are not yet available, but will be discussed at the conference
717 (STR-1117-657431) Great blue heron at Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: Exposure and effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).
Start time: 5:10 PM
Straub, C1, Halbrook, R1, Lydy, M1, 1 Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, United States
Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge (CONWR) is located in southern Illinois; it is used as a refuge, and for recreation, agriculture, and industrial activities including munitions manufacturing. Previous electrical industrial activities at CONWR resulted in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination. In 1987, CONWR was placed on the National Priorities List, and the 1990 Record of Decision provided for remediation of PCBs by excavation and incineration of soils and sediments; however, sediments at the east end of Crab Orchard Lake (COL) remain contaminated (Aroclor 1254 ranged between 15 to 690 ppb) and remediation decisions are ongoing. It is important to determine if there is risk to wildlife at CONWR resulting from exposure to PCB contaminated sediments. The objective of the current study includes evaluating two great blue heron (GBH) (Ardea herodias) rookeries, located near COL, to determine accumulation and reproductive effects of PCBs. One colony is located at the east end of the lake, near areas where elevated concentrations of PCBs have been reported in sediment and fish. The other colony is located on the west end of the lake and is not thought to be exposed to PCBs. The number of eggs laid and the number of chicks surviving two plus weeks were recorded to determine reproductive success. No significant difference (P≤0.05) in reproductive success between the rookeries was observed. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations were measured in eggs, fat tissue collected from chicks, gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), the dominant fish species consumed by heron, and regurgitate collected at each colony. This presentation reports PCB results and evaluates risk of PCBs to a piscivorous avian species at CONWR. These results provide valuable information for remedial decisions and management of the refuge.