RP1 Environmental Changes in Response to China's Economic Expansion|
Thursday, 17 November 2005: 8:00 AM - 6:30 PM in Exhibit Hall
RP002 (LIA-1117-554227) Characteristics of content distribution and species differentiation of rare earth elements in tideland water environment.
Start time: 8:00 AM
Tao, Liang1, 1 Chinese Academy of Sciences
Large quantities of rare earth elements (REEs) have been directly or indirectly entering water bodies due to mining activities and the applications in industry and agriculture in China during the past 30 years. Whether they could enter ocean and cause river and ocean pollution are press environmental issues. In this study, more than 40 water and sediment samples from sewage discharge channel and intertidal flat of Tianjin were collected. Speciation technique and ICP-MS analytical technology were used to determine the content of rare earth elements(REEs) in these samples. The results show that concentrations of dissolved REEs in water of the sewage discharge channels were very low. Concentrations of REEs in the sediments and suspended matter were lower than those in natural rivers, and concentrations of REEs in the suspended matter were much lower than those in the sediments. Distribution patterns of REEs in sediments and suspended matter were similar with light REE enrichment and positive Eu-anomaly. This distribution pattern was different from those of natural rivers. However, it was similar to those of local soils, implying that REEs in the channels came from the surrounding soils. The differences may have been caused by the large amount of organic pollutants in sewage. In addition, average concentrations of REEs in the filtered, unfiltered and interstitial water are 0.461g⋅L-1, 4.98 g⋅L-1 and 0.845 g⋅L-1, respectively. Their distribution patterns are similar to those in inland natural rivers, but quite different from those in oceans. The average concentrations of REEs in sediments and suspended matters are 161.2 mg⋅L-1 and 168.1 mg⋅L-1, respectively, which are much lower than those in sediments of natural rivers but higher than those in sediments of the continental shelf of East China Sea. It is suggested that REEs in sediments and suspended matters of intertidal flat could have mainly originated from terrestrial soils and thus their transportation and transformation processes are similar with those in rivers, and different from those in continental shelves. Pollutants discharged into the Bohai Bay haven't caused significant effect on REEs in the intertidal flat of Tianjin yet.
RP003 (WAN-1117-818082) The evolvement of environmental quality-----historical and current status of PAHs contamination in Xiamen (China).
Start time: 8:00 AM
Wang, X1, Hong, H1, 1 State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Environmental Science Research Center, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, P.R.China
Xiamen city is one of the earliest special economic zones established in China at the beginning of the reformation of society and economy during 1980s, which is located in the southeast of China with a strait to Taiwan. With the economic development and GDP growth rapidly, Xiamen is under increasing pollution pressure for many foreign toxic compounds charged into the air and water from the human activities such as municipal, industrial and agricultural operations. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) possess toxic characteristics, and can cause significant adverse health or environmental effects on marine organisms and even on human. However, due to their chemical complexity, trace levels of present and toxic in the environment, public little knows about their biogeochemical behavior and effects in the coastal environment. The Chinese government has not taken the monitoring of PAHs (except Benzo(a)pyrene, the most toxic in PAHs) fully into the environmental management system.now. In this paper, the history and current status of PAHs in marine coastal environment was assessed; including air (aerosol), seawater, sediment and marine organisms around Xiamen island including Jiulong river estuary and Xiamen Western Harbour. The sources, distribution and variation processes of PAHs in the marine environment were discussed. In order to construct the time trends of PAHs in this region, the concentrations in sediment cores were also analyzed, and the deposition rates were determined using 210Pb-226Ra. The evolvement of environmental quality in Xiamen was evaluated in the final.
RP004 (WAN-1117-526748) Distribution and sources of PAHs in the topsoil of Beijing, China.
Start time: 8:00 AM
Wang, X.J.1, Wang, K.Y.1, Hu, J.D. 1, Ye, Y.B.1, Zhang, S.C.1, Tao, S.1, 1 College of Environmental Science, Peking University, Beijing, China
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been identified as important pollutants in the environment and can cause significant environmental and human health risks. The spatial distribution patterns of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil are essential to regional environmental risk assessment. Beijing is the second largest city in China. It is not only a political center but also an industrial city and is suffering serious pollution of POPs with very complex sources. In this study, 194 topsoil samples in Beijing area were collected in the year of 2004, and the contents of 16 prior PAHs, as well as TOC, were determined for all the samples. Descriptive statistics was carried out. The average content of PAH16 for the 194 topsoil samples is 437.6 ng/g, while the highest is 10968.6 ng/g and the lowest is 4.7 ng/g. Multi-variate analysis were also carried out for PAH compounds and TOC. Results show that significant regional differences on the contents and composition of PAH compounds were observed in the studied area. Various sources contributed to the accumulation of PAHs at the topsoil, while coal combustion was the major one in creating the spatial distribution patterns.
RP005 (AAA-1117-537554) Dynamics of Lake Ecosystem Health in Response to Economic Expansion in China.
Start time: 8:00 AM
Xu, FL1, Hao, JY1, 1 College of environmental sciences, Peking University, Beijing, P. R. China
Since the late 1970s, reforming and opening policies in China have led to remarkable economic growth at an average annual GDP growth rate of approximate 8.3%. This rapid economic development, however, has come with an equally impressive increase in many environmental problems related to pollution and resource loss. Worsening lake ecosystem health is one of the most serious problems. This is evidenced in the trends of the lake physical, chemical, biological and ecosystem-service-function indicators. Decreasing water transparency, lowering water level, and decreasing lake area, etc, are typical lake physical problems. Eutrophication, acidification, and various pollutions caused by aggregate organics, heavy metals and POPs, etc, are emblematical lake chemicial problems. Algal bloom, macrophytes loss, species abundance and diversity decrease, and fish death, etc, are the representative phenomena in lake biological aspect in response to increasing stresses. In lake ecosystem-service-function aspect, some functions, e.g. primary contact recreation (bathing, diving), aesthetic enjoyment, natural flushing & dilution, drinking, aquiculture, transportation, etc, have been lost. Some causes should be responsible to this situation, such as, large amount input of chemical pollutants, over exploitation of lake water resource, and enormous decrease of riparian wetlands that were drained for farming purposes, etc.
RP006 (LIN-1118-029420) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fresh Tea Leaves:Source and Impact on Tea Quality.
Start time: 8:00 AM
Lin, Daohui1, Zhu, Lizhong2, 1 Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, PR China2 Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, PR China
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, a well-known class of carcinogens in food nowadays, might be uptaken by fresh tea leaves, and then might impact their quality. PAHs contents in certain kinds of made teas had been determined. However, little information is available on the source of PAHs in fresh tea leaves and their impact. In this paper, the uptake of PAHs from solution and around air by tea seedling was studied. The root and fresh leaves of tea seedling can absorb large quantity of PAHs from the around environment. The root concentration factors (RCFs) of PAHs in the solution were increased directly with the increase of lgKow of the PAHs. The leaves concentration factors (FCFs) of PAHs in the around air were increased exponentially with the increase of lgKow of the PAHs. The transport factors (TFs) of PAHs from root to leaves were decreased exponentially with the increase of lgKow of the PAHs. It was also revealed that the contents of catechins and caffine in fresh tea leaves could be impacted by PAHs.
RP007 (AAA-1118-051418) Effects of human activities on water quality in southwestern China.
Start time: 8:00 AM
Wu, F.1, Fu, P.1, Bai, Y.1, Wang, L.1, Li, W.1, Liu, C.1, 1 Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, Guizhou, China
Effects of human wastes and city expansion on water quality and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were discussed in this study. Lakes e. g. Lake Baihua and Lake Hongfeng and their rivers from Guizhou province, southwestern China were chosen for case studies, and fluorescence and DOC were used to investigate water quality variation. Results show that there were two major distinct fluorophores in the DOM samples: two fulvic-like fluorescence (one stimulated by UV excitation: Peak A; the other by visible excitation: Peak C) and protein-like fluorescence. The fulvic-like fluorescence was existed in all samples. Protein-like fluorescence (Peak B) was observed more obviously in samples from Lake Baihua, which was affected by the farm and industrial wastes. DOC concentrations in Lake Hongfeng (ranging from 1.60 to 3.08 mg L-1) was higher in rain season (May-Sept) than that in dry season (Nov-March), indicating that terrestrially-derived DOC was a major source. However, Lake Baihua had higher DOC concentrations (ranging from 1.71 to 3.69 mg L-1) than that in Lake Hongfeng. In the downstream Lake Baihua, DOC displayed a different seasonal variability, this may be because the lake was seriously affected by the wastes. In the vertical profiles of the fluorescence and DOC concentrations in both lakes, it seems that fluorescence was a poor predictor of DOC concentration. However, a good correlation (R2 = 0.35, n = 247) was observed between fluorescence intensities and DOC concentrations in the annual DOM samples. The relative fluorescence intensity of UV/visible humic-like peaks i.e., r(A,C) had a linear relationship with pH (Lake Hongfeng: R2=0.95; Lake Baihua: R2=0.70). A good correlation between protein-like fluorescence and Chl a was found in Lake Hongfeng while no correlation was found in Lake Baihua. These observations suggest that the inputs of terrestrial DOC varied with the seasons and lakes, the waste input and human activities in the watershed were the major factors affecting the seasonal distribution of DOC. This study has significant implications for the understanding of effects of human activities on the water quality and consequent environmental effects in lakes.
RP009 (RAN-1117-679682) Characterization of organic matters and its effect on desorption of PAHs in soils and sediments.
Start time: 8:00 AM
Ran, Yong1, Sun, Ke1, Wang, Guohui2, Grathwohl, Peter2, 1 State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, CAS, Guangzhou, P R China2 Center of Applied Geosciences, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany
Three contaminated soils from the Guangzhou urban area and five sediments from the estuary of Pearl River were collected. The nonhydrolyzable organic carbons (NHOC) and soot carbons were respectively measured using the wet chemical method and the combustion method at 375oC. The total PAHs were extracted by standard Soxhlet extraction, standard accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), and successive ASE of three solvents, respectively. The aqueous desorption behaviors of PAHs were also investigated using a temperature-programmed automatic ASE with constant pressure and different temperature steps ranging from 25 oC to 150 oC. The results showed that the NHOC and soot carbon can account for 31.4%-98.5% and 7.2%-22.7% of total organic carbons in soils and sediments, respectively. The PAHs extraction was generally higher by the three-steps ASE than by the standard ASE or the Soxhlet extraction. The in-situ solid-solution distribution coefficients (Koc) at low temperatures were up to 1.5 order higher than the reported Koc values. The PAH concentrations measured at 13 temperature steps fitted well to the van't Hoff equation, especially for those of higher temperatures. The investigation further suggest the important effect of condensed organic matters such as NHOC and soot carbon on the adsorption/desorption and fate of PAHs in soils and sediments. The result has an important significance to distribution, fate and transport of organic contaminants in both terrestrial and aquatic settings.
RP010 (XIA-1117-770141) Analysis of PCBs in the sediments and fish from several freshwater fishponds in the Pearl River Delta, China.
Start time: 8:00 AM
Xiangping, Nie1, Chongyu, Lan2, Taicheng, An3, 1 Institute of hydrobiology,Jinan University., Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China2 School of Life Sciences, Zhongshan University., Guangzhou, Guangdong, China3 State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls were determined in water, surface sediments and fish from freshwater fishponds in six different sites of Pearl River Delta regions in P.R. of China. Results showed that the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls ranged from 8.0 to 24.0 ng/L in water, 7.3 to 36.2 ng/L(dry weight) in sediments and 5.2 to 226.3ng/g(lipid weight) in fish. The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments and fish were higher in developed industrial sites and lower in rural sites. Feeding habits of fishes have clearly effects upon the accumulation of PCBs and the homologue patterns of PCBs in fish tissues, there were higher concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in muscle tissue of mandarin fish (Siniperca kneri), followed by Africa crucian (Tilapia mossambica), big head (Aristichthys nobilis) and crucian (Carassius auratus), the lowest one was in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The same rank results were also obtained in the visceral tissue of fishes. The viscera had higher polychlorinated biphenyls than the muscle did, especially the egg and liver tissues of some fishes. But gill tissue usually had very low level, or even undetected polychlorinated biphenyls. In muscle tissue, the IUPAC 118, 138, 81/87, 153, 180, 52, 49, 99 and 44 congeners occupied the great proportion of total amount polychlorinated biphenyls, other congeners of 36 congeners measured in the present study only accounted for a small proportion. Comparison to the maximum concentration of total PCBs allowable by the Food and Drug Administration in edible seafood which is 2.0 ug/g (wet weight), the contents of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish muscle tissues from Pearl River Delta were much lower than the limits and poses very limited potential risks upon the populations with regard to the consumption of aquaculture fish from these regions. However, due to the bioaccumulation and the biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls through the food chain, carefully and continuously monitoring for the persistent organic pollutions in the environment of these regions should be encouraged.
RP011 (BIX-1117-507825) Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers(PBDEs) in Environment of the Pearl River Delta, South China.
Start time: 8:00 AM
Mai, Bixian1, Chen, Shejun1, Chen, Laiguo1, Luo, Xiaojun1, Sheng, Guoying1, Fu, Jiamo1, Zeng, Eddy. Y1, 1 State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
The Pearl River Delta (PRD) of Southern China has became one of the "world's factories" for varied manufacturing industries and is subjected to a variety of suspected PBDE sources, such as electronic/electric equipment manufacturing, plastic and textile industry. Total 66 surface sediments collected from the PRD and its nearby South China Sea, two short sediment cores collected from Pearl River Estuary, and 32 air samples collected from Guangzhou were analyzed to determine the concentrations, spatial and temporal variation of 11 polybrominated diphenyl ethers,(BDEs 28, 47, 66, 100, 99, 85, 154, 153, 138, 183, and 209). The total 10PBDEs (except BDE209) and BDE 209 concentrations in surface sediments ranged from 0.04 to 94.7 ng/g dw and from 0.4 to 7340.8ng/g dw, respectively. The total 10PBDEs concentrations in most surface sediments are well within in the range of the world riverine and coastal sediments (<50ng/g), while the BDE209 concentrations in Zhujiang and Donjiang rivers were at the high end of the worldwide figures for BDE209 in sediments. Congener profiles were dominated by BDE209 followed by the congeners from the penta-BDE mixture and some octa-BDEs. The major sources of PBDEs include discharges from Guanzhou, Dongguan and Shenzhen, Differences in PBDE patterns among different locations were attributed to the decomposition of highly brominated congeners and/or redistribution between various sizes particles during atmosphere or fluvial transportation. The depth profiles of PBDEs in two short sediment cores indicated that the levels of BDE209 are rapidly increasing in the most recent layers of both two cores, coincident with the increasing of the electronic/electric manufacturing industry. The concentrations of total 10PBDEs in air samples (particle plus gas phases) collected from Guangzhou ranged from 88.8pg/m3 at a urban site to about 3672pg/m3 near an industrial area, while BDE 209 ranged from 263.8 pg/m3 to about 4200pg/m3. The PBDE congener profiles in air samples indicated that deca-BDE and penta-BDE were the main source mixtures consistent with the results from sediments. The gas-particle partitioning of PBDEs in the urban atmosphere was also discussed based on the KOA and Kp-POL model.
RP012 (JUN-1117-758374) Exposure of traffic police in Haidiang District to PAHs.
Start time: 8:00 AM
Jun, Cao1, Shu, Tao1, Yanan, Liu1, Wenting, Zhang 1, Han, Dou1, 1 Peking university
Personal samplers were used for measurement of exposure of traffic policeman in Beijing in summer 2004. The total exposed concentrations were 1530±741 mg/m3 and 160±120 mg/m3 for gaseous and particle phases PAHs, which were significantly higher than those measured at control site away from the street. The total exposed concentration of carcinogenic PAHs were 15.0±8.76 mg/m3 for policeman and 7.24±5.57 mg/m3 for control, which were primarily contributed by particle phase PAHs. Daily variation of the exposure were under influences of temperature and humidity. Positive correlation between gaseous PAHs and humidity and negative correlations between both gaseous and particle PAHs and temperature were revealed.
RP013 (LIU-1117-678973) Biosorption of copper on the surface of Ulva pertusa.
Start time: 8:00 AM
Liu, C.-F.1, Jiang, L.2, Zhang, J.3, Wei, H.-F.4, He, J.5, 1 Dalian Fisheries University, Dalian, Liaoning, China2 Dalian Fisheries University, Dalian, Liaoning, China3 Dalian Fisheries University, Dalian, Liaoning, China4 Dalian Fisheries University, Dalian, Liaoning, China5 Dalian Fisheries University, Dalian, Liaoning, China
Biosorption of copper(II) has been investigated on the surface of Ulva pertusa, a macroalgae, with respect to adsorption temperature using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV). The grade adsorption isotherm was found to fit the experimental results well for the adsorption of copper(II) up to concentration 7 mmol/L by U. pertusa. Both of first-order and second-order adsorption can describe as "saturation type". At temperature 7.5°C, 15.0°C, 22.5 °C, the pK1 and pK2 according to grade adsorption isotherm were 1.074, 3.197; 1.277, 3.087; and 1.451, 3.032, respectively. The equilibrium constant may be expressed in terms of enthalpy change of biosorption. The first-order and second-order biosorption indicate exothermic and endothermic reaction, respectively.
RP014 (SHE-1117-129750) Combined effects of heavy metal and PAH on genetic diversity of soil microbial community.
Start time: 8:00 AM
Shen, Guoqing1, Lu, Yitong1, Zhang, Luan1, 1 Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China
Pollution of soil environment has become a serious problem in many countries, including China. Heavy metal (HM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are two of the most abundant and potentially harmful pollutants found in most polluted soil. They are frequently found together as contaminants in soil environment and affect the soil microbial communities. The genetic diversities of microbial communities in soils contaminated by heavy metal (HM) Cadmium (Cd) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) phenanthrene were evaluated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis after 15, 30 and 60 exposure in laboratory experiments. Twelve random primers were used to amplify RAPDs from microbial community DNAs in soil with single and combined pollution. The richness, modified richness, Shannon Weaver index, and a similarity coefficient of DNA were calculated to evaluate DNA sequence diversities for soil microbial communities. The results showed that the combined effect of PAH and HM on the genetic diversity of soil microbial community depends on the incubation time. At early contaminated stage (within 30 days of incubation), there was an increased genetic diversity in contaminated soil relative to reference soil. These results showed that HM or/and PAH might result in some changes for soil microbial DNA itself, such as sequence breakage or insertion and genomic rearrangement at early contaminated stage. However, at 60th day decreases in genetic diversity were observed in all contaminated soil samples. It may be caused by decrease in the number of community. These findings contribute to our understanding of the combined effects of HM and PAH as well as to the development of population-level biomarkers.