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T5 PM Emerging Pollutants
(AAA-1117-677590) Assessment of PBDEs in spruce needles and air surrounding a sanitary landfill.
St-Amand, A1, Mayer, P1, Blais, J2, 1 Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, CANADA2 Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, CANADA
ABSTRACT- Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants used during the manufacturing process of a variety of electronic devices, plastics and fabrics in order to increase their fire resistance. Several studies have shown that PBDEs are present in areas as far away as the arctic, and that their concentration is increasing rapidly. The objectives of this study are to assess PBDEs concentrations in spruce needles and air (volatile and particulate-bound) near the Trail Waste Facility in Ottawa, Canada and evaluate surface (needles)-air exchange for more than a year (two spring episodes). Spruce needle samples collected from February to November 2004 showed an average total PBDE concentration of 0.56ng/g dry weight (0.050ng/g-2.6ng/g) or 42ng/g lipid (2.1ng/g-160ng/g). A general decrease of total PBDE concentration in needles was seen following the arrival of spring (snow melt) which was followed by an increase throughout the summer. Air samples collected in the same time period generally had a total volatile PBDE concentration of less than 2pg/m3, but was usually higher than 2pg/m3 total for particulate-bound PBDE. Total PBDE concentration in air samples were more dynamic and were largely influenced by the weather at time of sampling. Wind speed and direction were noted as the primary influence. Illustrative plots demonstrated that particle-bound deposition was the primary process for plant uptake. In general, the congener profiles were very similar between samples showing that presence of PBDEs at the Trail Waste Facility is due to commercial formulations.
Key words: polybrominated diphenyl ethers, spruce needles, air
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