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MP11 Advances in Bioaccumulation Assessment
(LIL-1117-817457) Proposals for the implementation of the 3Rs in the assessment of a chemical's potential to bioconcentrate or cause acute aquatic toxicity.
Lillicrap, A1, Comber, M2, De Wolf, W3, Douben, P4, Gimeno, S5, Leonard, M6, Stevens, C7, van Egmond, R4, Whale, G8, Holt, M9, 1 Astrazeneca, Brixham, Devon, England2 Exxon-mobil, Brussels, Belgium3 Dupont, Brussels, Belgium4 Unilever, Colworth, England5 Procter and Gamble, Brussels, Belgium6 L'Oreal, Paris, France7 Dow corning, Brussels, Belgium8 Shell, Cheshire, England9 ECETOC, Brussels, Belgium
ABSTRACT- REACH is the proposed new European Union legislation for the registration, evaluation and authorisation of chemicals. This legislation will require information for over 30 000 chemicals, while respecting the 3Rs of animal testing, reduce, refine and replace. This paper addresses alternative approaches, proposed by an ECETOC taskforce, for the generation of hazard data used in risk assessments to determine acute aquatic toxicity or bioconcentration. Currently, for acute aquatic toxicity, lethality is traditionally used as the endpoint and a minimum of 42 fish are routinely required for each assessment (OECD 203). In terms of indirect effects, bioconcentration factors (BCF) are used to assess the potential of a chemical to bioconcentrate and a minimum of 108 fish may be required for each assessment (OECD 305). Many of the existing hazard assessment approaches, used to assess bioconcentration, apply simple numerical cut-offs, derived from log Kow-BCF models based on non-ionic, non-metabolisable chemicals. The approach presented here describes how the use of information derived from mammalian studies, QSARs, alternative lifestages, non-vertebrate organisms and in-vitro experiments can be used to re-design studies for assessing a chemical's potential to either cause acute aquatic toxicity or bioconcentration. Consequently, two testing strategies have been developed which aim to minimise or avoid the need for fish in the risk assessment of chemicals or whole effluent assessments. The findings from a recent workshop, organised by the Task Force, attended by NGOs, regulators, academics and industry members are also presented herein. Finally the opportunities for future research have been identified along with the recommended projects needed to strengthen these approaches.
Key words: alternative, acute, bioconcentration, fish
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