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WP1 Wastewater Treatment Effluents: Endocrine Disrupters and Pharmaceuticals
(AND-1117-821873) New Tools for Evaluating Potential Risk of Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: A Case Study.
Anderson, P1, Buzby, M2, Caldwell, D4, DuPlessie, B1, Johnston, J3, 1 AMEC Earth & Environmental, Westford, MA, US2 Merck & Co., Inc4 Johnson and Johnson3 Wyeth
ABSTRACT- Relatively recently researchers have detected low levels of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in US surface waters. Concomitant with this discovery, not surprisingly, has been a dramatic increase in the number of peer-reviewed articles reporting on the aquatic effects of APIs. While the publication of surface water concentration data and of effects data lays the foundation for evaluating the potential for adverse effects in US surface waters, actually completing such evaluations can be quite resource intensive because the information can be disparate. To facilitate such evaluations, the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) has developed two tools. The first is a model (PhATETM) to estimate concentrations of APIs in surface waters that result from patient use of medicines. PhATETM has the advantage over relying on measured concentrations of being able to predict surface water concentrations in many more reaches of rivers and under different flow regimes than can be practically measured. The second tool is an aquatic effects database. This database is updated quarterly and will eventually summarize all of the peer-reviewed aquatic effects literature (as of March 2005 more than 750 articles) available on APIs. Finally, it is possible to combine the detected and predicted surface water concentrations with the aquatic toxicity information to evaluate the potential risk. This paper presents an overview of these two tools and presents a case study.
Key words: PhATE, pharmaceutical, aquatic toxicity, aquatic fate
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