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TP9 Ecotoxicology of Reptiles
(JON-1117-837955) Acute toxicity, accumulation, and reproductive effects of HMX exposure in green anoles.
Jones, L1, Pan, X1, Cobb, G1, Anderson, T1, Lovern, M2, Smith, P1, McMurry, S1, 1 Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA2 Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA
ABSTRACT- Residues of explosives represent a significant environmental concern on many military installations. Over the years, much effort has been put into the study of the environmental fate of explosives and their exposure and effects in various organisms. High Melting Explosive (HMX) is currently one of the top four explosives used worldwide, and identified by DoD as a compound in need of study to assess exposure and effects endpoints in potential receptor organisms. Of particular need is information on the effects of explosives on reptile models. We selected green anoles (Anolis carolinensis) as our reptilian model species, as they are found in abundance throughout the southeastern U.S., from North Carolina to east Texas, and routinely cultured in the laboratory. Our study included three components; estimation of acute toxicity, determination of HMX transfer to eggs from contaminated soil, and maternal transfer of HMX to eggs and subsequent effects on hatching, survival, and growth of neonates. Acute toxicity (LD50) of HMX in adult male and female anoles was estimated using a standard up-down toxicity test and was determined to be >2000 mg/kg body weight. Accumulation of HMX into eggs incubating in contaminated soil was assessed at four concentration levels of HMX (0, 20, 200, and 2000 mg HMX per kg of soil). To determine maternal transfer of HMX into eggs, adult females were dosed via crickets injected with HMX to deliver four different doses (0, 20, 200, and 1000 mg/kg body weight). Results of all three components of the study are presented.
Key words: explosive, reptile, depuration, reproduction
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